Nobel Prizer : A Brief History

Nobel Prize : A Brief History

  • In which field Nobel Prize is given?
  • Where the Nobel Prize Ceremony takes place?
  • Who was Alfred Nobel?
  • How he laid the Foundation of Nobel Prize?
  • World's most famous Nobel Prize Winners
  • Nobel Prize winners of 2016 (till now)
  • Major Controversy on Nobel Prize.

Given in field of:

  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Physiology or Medicine
  • Economic Science
  • Literature
  • Peace

PRIZE 

Prize includes:

  1. Medal -: Before 1980 medals were struck in 23 Carat gold. But now it is 18 Carat gold plated with 24 Carat gold.
  2. A Diploma
  3. And a Sum of Money as decided by Nobel Foundation. (Currently it is US $1.2 million).

Place of Prize Ceremony:

Prize Ceremony takes place in Stockhalm, Sweden (Except for Nobel Prize in Peace that takes place in Oslo, Norway).

Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel born in family of Engineers. Inherited the profession and was a known Chemist, engineer and an inventor. He purchased iron and steel mill, Bofors in 1894. He developed it as a major armament manufacturer. He invented Ballistite (Ballistite is a smokeless propellant made from high explosives, nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine).
It (Ballistite) was a predecessor to many smokeless explosives. Among which ‘Cardite’ was most important. As Nobel was involved in patent infringement lawsuit over Cardite. He became very rich from his 355 inventions, among which ‘Dynamite’ is most famous.


How he laid the Foundation of Nobel Prize?

In 1888, he was shocked to read his own obituary, titled “Le marchand de la mort est mort” (The Merchant of death is dead), in a French Newspaper. Actually, it was his brother “Ludvig” who had died. The obituary was eight years premature. They mistook his brother to be Alfred. This article/news make Alfred rethink about how he would be remembered. This inspired to change his will. He in his last will mention that his fortune be used to create a series of Prizes for those who confer the “greatest benefit on mankind” in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace.

World’s most famous Nobel Prize Winners:

  • Nelson Mandela
  • Albert Einstein
  • Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Barack Obama
  • Marie Curie
  • Sir Alexander Fleming
  • The Red Cross
  • Werner Heisenberg
  • Mother Teresa
  • C.V. Raman
  • Dalai Lama………………………….and many more.


Nobel Prize Winners of 2016 (till now)

Physics

  1. J. Michael Kosterlitz
  2. Duncan Haldane
  3. David J. Thouless

Chemistry

  1. Jean Pierre Sauvage
  2. Fraser stoddart
  3. Ben Feringa

Physiology or Medicine

  1. Yoshinori Ohsumi

Peace

  1. Juan Manuel Santos

Economic Science

  1. Oliver Hart
  2. Bengt Holmstrom 

Literature

  1. Bob Dylan
 

Major Controversy 

Major Controversy over the selection procedure of Prize Winners is the priority given to rich nations or the nations predominant in nature. One of the very controversial things is that Mahatma Gandhi (on whose birth anniversary we celebrate non-violence day) was not awarded with Nobel Prize in peace whereas his follows were awarded the same.

Disclaimer -: Images taken from various internet sources and not own by PCMpedia.

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